St. George’s Terrace

St. George’s Tale

By Michaela Ann Cameron

St George's Terrace, ParramattaSt. George’s Terrace, like nearby Willow Grove, is slated for demolition as part of the State Government’s Powerhouse business cases. While our “Weeping Willow” is in pristine condition thanks to restoration work over the years and, thus, has the community in an uproar over her proposed destruction, St. George has been written off by some as being beyond the point of no return and “insignificant.” St. George, however, has quite a tale to tell and needs only a “few touches” to revitalise and adapt it for contemporary use in “Australia’s next great city”; an approach, as it happens, that St. George’s builder and owner would have thoroughly approved of, as “The Old Parramattan” explains.


George Coates (1827-1912). Master Builder and Alderman of Parramatta Council. Photo from the personal collection of Marion Moran and reproduced here with permission.
George Coates (1827-1912). Master Builder and Alderman of Parramatta Council, described by one Parramatta journalist as “a typical Britisher, pleasant-looking and bright, with a decided twinkle in his eye.” Photo from the personal collection of Marion Moran and reproduced here with permission.

Two pounds — that is all George Coates had in his pocket when he disembarked from the optimistically named ship Fortune on 28 April 1853.[1] It was a meagre sum made all the smaller by the weight of his responsibility, for it had to support not only himself but his wife, Mary, and sons: two-year-old Herbert and newborn William, born on the three-and-a-half-month voyage from Liverpool, England. They were three of a total of 305 “assisted immigrants” on board that ship alone.[2] And the Fortune was merely one of many ships; each one arriving full of hundreds more immigrants, just like the Coates, whose passage to the colony of New South Wales in the mid-nineteenth century had been paid for or subsidised by the government, wealthy individuals, or some other agency.[3]

Notwithstanding the dim reality of having no more than two pounds to his name and so many other new arrivals to compete with for employment, George Coates obviously believed wholeheartedly that the colony was his chance to change his fortune. Had he dared, even then, to imagine that he might also make a fortune here? There is some indication that the idea had indeed taken a hold of him, for he and his wife bestowed upon their newborn son the ship’s name “Fortune” as a middle name. George Coates’s apparent optimism is not surprising; after all, he knew he possessed things of value that his present monetary worth alone did not reflect. “The rest of his capital was…a stout heart,…his willingness to work, his English shrewdness, and his knowledge of [a] trade.”[4] Indeed, when his 26-year-old self set foot in New South Wales, it is likely he already considered himself a self-made man, and rightly so.

The Self-Made Man

Mary Coates, wife of George Coates (nee Mary Larmer). Photo from the personal collection of Marion Moran and used here with permission.
Mary Coates (1829–1878), wife of George Coates (née Mary Larmer). Photo from the personal collection of Marion Moran and used here with permission.

George Coates was born in Kinsale, County Cork, Ireland in 1827 to British Army pensioner George Coates I, a native of Suffolk, England, and Irish woman Bridget (née Mullally). By 1841, George, his parents, and siblings had moved from Ireland to Salford near Manchester, England, where his father eventually found work as a policeman.[5] George the younger had learnt to read and write and “picked up what he could at his Sunday-school” then went on to work in the Cotton Factory along with his elder brother James.[6] Despite securing employment in the cotton mills, though, George proved unwilling to settle for his lot in life. His aspirations led him to learn carpentry and joinery in night classes offered by his Sunday-school in Manchester.[7] As one reporter would later state, “In respect of schooling,…he like many another English lad of those days, was unable to meet…luxurious opportunities…And because of the difficulties—in the way of most lads searching after learning—he became largely a self-taught man.”[8]

George married Mary Larmer in Manchester Cathedral in 1849 and by the time of the 1851 census was employed as a carpenter and joiner. The census also reveals, however, that George, his wife and their 9-month-old son Herbert were living with George’s parents in their home along with three of George’s siblings, including 15-year-old John, who had joined elder brother James in the cotton mills. George—now a skilled tradesman with a young, growing family and faced with opportunities to emigrate thanks to assisted immigration schemes—was probably finding it increasingly difficult to justify contributing to what had to have been rather cramped living conditions in his parents’ home. Not long after the 1851 census, however, the Coates’s matriarch, Bridget, passed away. When Bridget passed, George may have felt that much of what he associated with home had gone with her, making it easier for him to make a new life in a far-flung British colonial outpost where the Coates had neither relatives nor friends.[9]

A Master Builder

Two days after arriving in the colony, the Agent for Immigration advertised in the Government Gazette that the adult male immigrants per Fortune were available for hire and listed their occupations.[10]

IMMIGRANTS PER "FORTUNE." New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW: 1832 - 1900), Saturday 30 April 1853, [Issue No.47 (SUPPLEMENT)], p. 756
IMMIGRANTS PER “FORTUNE.” New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW: 1832 – 1900), Saturday 30 April 1853, [Issue No.47 (SUPPLEMENT)], p. 756
George Coates was, therefore, soon gainfully employed as a carpenter by a Mr. Carter at £3 per week.[11]

“[O]ne of his first jobs, was at building a stair-case. In that sort of thing the young colonist was an adept: and there were not too many similar adepts among the carpenters of Sydney. The job when done was so pleasing to the employer that the young man was given a handsome bonus. He was soon with another firm—one of the best in the colony then—with a nice letter of recommendation from his late employer, to his credit. His wages were raised time after time; and soon he was getting £9 per week.”[12]

A highly motivated individual who always aspired to achieve more, Coates was not content to merely continue on this successful path. Thus, upon “discover[ing] the value of his services to the firm,…the thought occurred to him that it was time he was securing some such value for himself.”[13] With money he had already saved “he found a chance of making a start” on his own.[14]

Sadly, fortune had not favoured George and Mary’s infant son William Fortune, who died the year after the Coates arrived in the colony, nor George’s younger brother John, who had followed his brother to the colony only to pass away, aged 22, in 1859.[15] Yet, despite these personal losses, George Coates was enjoying professional success. In a few short years he became “one of the foremost builders of the metropolitan and Parramatta districts.” Indeed, one journalist later declared that by the 1860s and 1870s, Coates was “one of the best known builders in New South Wales…He built…most of the new buildings in Parramatta…in what have been styled…the “good old days”; but the class of work which he was called upon to do in the city was perhaps the best advertisement of his skill and energy and knowledge.”[16]

Louisa "Louie" Harper (nee Louisa Coates), daughter of George Coates and Mary Coates. This photo is from the personal collection of Marion Moran and used here with permission.
Louisa “Louie” Harper (nee Louisa Coates), youngest daughter of George Coates and Mary Coates. This photo is from the personal collection of Marion Moran and used here with permission.

As his star rose, George never forgot his humble beginnings in the cotton mills in Manchester, England. “In 1862,” writes Coates family history researcher Marion Moran, “George Coates and [his] brother Herbert gave money to the funds for Relief of Distress in the Manufacturing Districts of England” when the cotton industry in Manchester, in which the Coates brothers had once toiled, was experiencing disruptions and rising unemployment; all as a result of the American Civil War. Although, as Moran notes, “it was later discovered that some of the money may have been misspent when it arrived in England,” George’s well-meaning donation demonstrates his connection not only to his adopted local community of Parramatta—which would culminate in an official role soon enough—but also his continued sense of connection to the local community of his adolescence and early working life, though he had left Manchester behind almost a decade earlier.[17]

In the course of his celebrated building career, Coates was also committed to passing on his knowledge to the next generation of builders of the district, “a goodly number of [whom] learned their trade under his supervision.”[18] Among those members of the next generation he nurtured were his own sons who went on to become “master builders” of Parramatta in their own right. For example, though the business Herbert and George’s father transferred to them suffered during the economic depression of the 1890s,[19] Herbert, who had married Emily Sarah Hughes, the granddaughter of First Fleet convict and wheelwright Hugh Hughes, went on to be the contractor for the Australian Joint Stock Bank’s Parramatta branch. As such, when the new bank opened for business in early 1887, Herbert “had the gratification of drawing the first money across the counter. When Herbert is a grandfather,” wrote a journalist reporting the bank’s grand opening, “he will point with pride to that building, and no doubt relate this fact to his grandchildren.”[20] Unfortunately, while Herbert’s grandchildren likely did see the building, subsequent generations would not have the pleasure. The sturdy, impressive building stood at 207 Church Street, Parramatta until it was demolished in the 1950s. View a c. 1925 photograph of the building held in the Parramatta Heritage and Visitor Information Centre’s photo collection.

Emily Sarah Coates, wife of Herbert Coates, most likely nursing their son Percy Coates. Emily was the granddaughter of First Fleet convict and wheelwright Hugh Hughes, who is buried at St. John's Cemetery, Parramatta. Photo from Henry William Burgin – studio portraits of Parramatta residents, ca. 1860-1872, Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales.
Emily Sarah Coates, wife of Herbert Coates, most likely nursing their son Percy Coates. Emily was the granddaughter of First Fleet convict and wheelwright Hugh Hughes, who is buried at St. John’s Cemetery, Parramatta. Photo from Henry William Burgin – studio portraits of Parramatta residents, ca. 1860-1872, Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales.

Overall, George Coates’s professional success had enabled him to provide his children with opportunities that had eluded him in his native land. We know, for instance, that George Coates junior received a fine education at the local King’s School (1870–1874), while William Henry, another son born to George and Mary and given the name “William,” went on to be educated at Newington college. “Both were very involved in Parramatta sports, helping to found local cricket and rugby clubs which continue today,” notes Moran.[21] In fact, William “was one of the foremost Rugby footballers of his day, [first] as a Newington student and [then] as a Parramatta representative,”[22] while George junior managed the New South Wales Cricket team in 1902 when the team toured Queensland and “in later life was a champion Bowler, having joined the Parramatta Bowling Club in 1884. He represented the state over a number of years, winning the Australian championship four times.”[23] George junior, evidently a high achiever like his father, managed all this in addition to being one of Parramatta’s leading contractors and running a successful business, first known as Coates and Harper and later known as L. Harper and Co. Ltd, Parramatta. The formulation of the Harper–Coates partnership likely owed much to the fact that George junior and Richard Harper had been peers at the King’s School since their timber business predated Richard’s marriage to George’s sister Louisa “Louie” Coates. Another son, Edwin, was among “the first lot of Colonial volunteers to spring to the aid of the Motherland”[24] in 1885 when he and other New South Welshmen exclusively were deployed to Sudan. Though brief, this conflict—from which Edwin returned safely—marked “Australia’s first real military engagement abroad” and, as such, “has been seen as the first expression of colonial commitment to the imperial cause in the nineteenth century,”[25] thus paving the way for Australia’s enthusiastic involvement in “The Great War.” George and Mary’s youngest son, Alfred Ernest Coates, held “a good position in a manufacturing business up the Mountains” while their eldest daughter, Emma, married draper John Gilbert at St. John’s Church, Parramatta, “a business man” well known to “old Parramattans.”[26]

City Father

Characteristically, George Coates senior was still not content to restrict his activities to the field in which he evidently shone. “In the stirring days of Parramatta’s early municipal life,” Coates “found time amid the pressure of the hundred claims of a big business, to “be there.””[27] “He was elected a member of the Parramatta Council,” in the 1870s, having been elected for Anderson Ward a few years after the incorporation of the town.”[28]

Ever the over-achiever, George Coates was “an early proponent of gas street lighting, a member of the St. John’s Church committee, a local magistrate in the 1880s, and a founding member of the Widow’s Son Lodge (Freemasons) in Parramatta (1862).”[29] And, “in the great political debate of the 1880s and 1890s, he supported Free trade,” asserts Moran.[30] If all this were not enough, he had also been a member of the old Parramatta Band, a Forester (the oldest in Parramatta district and one of the oldest in the country according to a report in 1906), “a very fair rifle shot,” as well as a volunteer.[31] And “through his business” he “supported the formation of the Coates Cricket Club, comprised mainly of his employees, before a Parramatta team existed.”[32]

St George’s Terrace, 1881

George Coates & Son, i.e. Herbert, reportedly built St. George’s Terrace at 44 Phillip Street, Parramatta in 1881. It is, perhaps, safe to assume they included “George” in the building’s name as an homage to the family patriarch and master builder.[33]

The terrace may have actually been the last building project that the “master builder” George Coates worked on directly. Two newspaper advertisements support this notion. On Tuesday 28 September 1880, the year before construction of the terrace was completed, an advertisement in the Evening News provided notice of the dissolution of a partnership between George Coates and his son Herbert Coates, “in the business of Builders and Timber Merchants, at Parramatta, under the style of GEORGE COATES and SON,” which was to “expire by effluxion of time on 30th September Instant.” And, by 2 July 1881, “Herbert Coates, builder and contractor,” posted the following advertisement in the Hawkesbury Chronicle and Farmers Advocate, which mentions his father’s retirement from the building trade:

“Advertising,” Hawkesbury Chronicle and Farmers Advocate (Windsor, NSW: 1881 – 1888), Saturday 2 July 1881, p. 4
Advertising,” Hawkesbury Chronicle and Farmers Advocate (Windsor, NSW: 1881 – 1888), Saturday 2 July 1881, p. 4

A little over two months later, on 21 September 1881, St. George’s Terrace, “a newly-erected terrace, built of brick on a stone foundation, at the corner of SMITH and PHILLIP STREETS, within ten minutes’ walk of the STATION,” was advertised for sale.

St George's Terrace Advertisement 1881
Advertising,” Sydney Morning Herald (NSW: 1842 – 1954), Wednesday 21 September 1881, p. 8

Perhaps GEORGE COATES & SON began the project together and Herbert oversaw its completion. Note, too, that the advertisement asserts the terrace was comprised of eight houses, not seven, which is how we know it today. While the State Heritage Register records that “[w]ithin three years” of building St. George’s Terrace “Coates had also built the Oriental Hotel beside the terraces on the corner of Smith and Phillip Streets,”[34] it seems the Oriental Hotel and the seven houses we currently identify as St. George’s Terrace were actually all built at the same time and were part of what was conceived of originally as the St. George’s Terrace group of eight houses. The Oriental Hotel, described as “an old brick, two-storey house” was the eighth “corner house” of St. George’s Terrace advertised in 1881 as suitable for a “STORE or HOTEL.” Furthermore, since St. George’s Terrace now occupies the corner of Phillip and Smith Streets, it appears some major modification of these streets must have occurred once the Oriental Hotel portion of the terrace was demolished. The hotel itself had been closed as early as 1908 and was notable for being “the first public house actually shut up in [the] district…perhaps even in [the] state…the “first fruits” of the temperance people’s victory at the polls of N.S.W.”[35]

In any case, despite being advertised for sale, George Coates apparently retained ownership of St. George’s Terrace and rented out some of its houses.[36] A number of his grown children were also occupants of the terrace over the years, as the following advertisements attest:

“Advertising,” The Cumberland Mercury (Parramatta, NSW: 1875 - 1895), Saturday 31 March 1883, p. 5
Advertising,” The Cumberland Mercury (Parramatta, NSW: 1875 – 1895), Saturday 31 March 1883, p. 5
“Advertising,” The Cumberland Mercury (Parramatta, NSW: 1875 – 1895), Saturday 1 December 1883, p. 5
Advertising,” The Cumberland Mercury (Parramatta, NSW: 1875 – 1895), Saturday 1 December 1883, p. 5

Years later, St. George’s Terrace was still among the numerous properties George Coates owned. When George Coates, “one of the oldest surviving members of the old Parramatta Borough Council and the head of one of the best-known Parramatta families,”[37] passed away at Bellview, his George Street residence in Parramatta, aged 88, on 3 April 1912, in his last will and testament he bequeathed St. George’s Terrace to his grandchildren, siblings Ronald and Caryl — the children of war veteran Edwin Coates. But while St. George’s Terrace should have been Ron’s place, it was never to be.

“He was only 19”

Ronald and presumably also his sister Caryl had reportedly lived with their grandfather George Coates “for many years” at George’s cottage Bellview, Parramatta.[38] Just over two years after George’s death his beloved grandson Ronald was one of the multitudes of Australian lads who, full of ideals of manliness and a sense of duty, answered their country’s call to arms in “The Great War,” World War I.

On 4 September 1915, Ron’s uncle and guardian, George Coates junior, received a wire reporting that Private Ronald Coates had been “not seriously” wounded between 7th and 14th August. By mid-November, having heard nothing more since, Ron’s increasingly anxious uncle George, who was by then also his guardian, wrote from his residence “Boomerah” on Macquarie Street, Parramatta, to the Secretary of Defence:

The Secretary of Defence,

Melbourne

Dear Sir,

I would be glad if you could supply me with information as to the present whereabouts and condition of Private Ronald E. Coates, No. 836, “H” Company Second Battalion, First Brigade, New South Wales Expeditionary Force.

The last news was a wire received September 4th 1915 as follows: –

“Regret Private R. E. Coates wounded between 7th and 14th August not reported seriously, no other particulars available, will immediately advise anything further received. Secretary Defence.”

As I have had absolutely no news since, we are naturally very anxious. Could you obtain me any information? I will be quite willing to pay any expense that may be incurred in getting same quickly.

Thanking you in anticipation

I have the honor to be, Sir,

Your most obedient servant,

[signed] George Coates [jun.]

Uncle and Guardian to above R. E. Coates.

View the original letter here and view R. E. Coates’s entire World War I Record here at the National Archives of Australia.

In the meantime, the name of Private Ronald Ernest Coates was listed on the “Roll of Honor,” celebrating the men and women of Parramatta who were then serving their country. It was unveiled in a special ceremony on Friday 29 October 1915.[39]

What no one knew that October night was that, contrary to the original wire, on 8 August 1915—not long before he would have “come into considerable property [St. George’s Terrace] left him by his grandfather”—Ronald had in fact been killed in action at Lone Pine, Gallipoli.[40]

“Killed at Gallipoli. Another Parramatta Boy,” The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW: 1888 - 1950), Wednesday 24 May 1916, p. 3
Killed at Gallipoli. Another Parramatta Boy,” The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW: 1888 – 1950), Wednesday 24 May 1916, p. 3

Later, the “Roll of Honor” was inscribed on the Royal Memorial Gates in front of St. John’s Church, Centenary Square, Parramatta. The Royal Memorial Gates were dedicated and unveiled in 1918 in a “most impressive, imposing ceremony” by the Governor-General in the presence of thousands of spectators, including relatives and friends of those who served.[41]

Royal Memorial Gates with Roll of Honor and River of Poppies ANZAC tribute. Photo: Michaela Ann Cameron (2017).
Royal Memorial Gates with Roll of Honor and River of Poppies ANZAC tribute. Photo: Michaela Ann Cameron (2017).

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“One of the builders of the Empire.”

George Coates was “one of the foremost builders of the metropolitan and Parramatta districts,” and, as such, one reporter was tempted to say, “one of the builders of the Empire.”[42] He had made his mark by “undertak[ing] the control of a large share of a good class of work then claiming considerable attention”; namely “the transformation of the fronts of old-style buildings into modern commercial emporiums, such as the business of the State, advancing by leaps and bounds, was demanding.”[43]

In 1906, the Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate reported “much of [Coates’s work] stands to-day untouched, and requiring but few touches, despite the rushing avalanche of the city improvements and re-building of the beginning of the twentieth century.”[44] Even in 2018, 106 years since George Coates’s death, architect and author Elizabeth Farrelly states:

St. George’s Terrace, from 1881, a complete row of seven terrace houses, slightly bastardised around the openings but nothing that a little TLC wouldn’t fix. Both [St. George’s Terrace and nearby Willow Grove] are listed on Schedule 5 as fine examples of the ancient fabric of our second-oldest settlement.[45]

It is ironic, then, that St. George’s Terrace, owned and built by “one of the builders of the Empire” George Coates is now slated for demolition as part of the State Government’s Powerhouse business case; deemed unworthy of a “few touches” or of being transformed and repurposed, Coates-style. Farrelly writes:

[T]he “business case” says both [St. George and Willow] must go. Why? To provide “access” to the [Powerhouse (MAAS)] site from council’s other billion-plus redevelopment behind the Town Hall at Parramatta Square. But that’s not really true. There’s a good 30 metres between the two buildings, access enough for any museum. What they mean is these charming heritage buildings must go to make way for the brash new super-tower.[46]

From the outset, Coates’s own specialty had been in transformation, updating and repurposing “old-style” buildings for a new, modern, commercial purpose — not demolition. This respect for and balance between the old and the new was something the self-made man had achieved on a personal level, too. In later life, even after all his success, he saw no need to entirely replace his younger, humbler self with the image of his successful, affluent identity, but honoured his past. For instance, in 1906, six years before his death, Coates alluded to his paltry funds on arrival in the colony, saying to a reporter “with his old, cheery laugh” and the ever-present “twinkle” in his eye that “[h]e managed…to always have the two pounds in his pocket.”[47] Clearly, Coates never forgot; he knew the value of remembering his early, humble beginnings. And, as Old Parramatta is turned into “Australia’s next great city” amidst a “rushing avalanche of…city improvements and re-building,” so should we.


Click here to see a c.1970s–1980s photo of St. George’s Terrace when it was newly-restored and modified for commercial purposes, held in the Parramatta Heritage and Visitor Information Centre’s photo collection. This photo alone is a prime example of how this heritage property could be easily revitalised so it is in keeping with the modern, developing city of Parramatta whilst also retaining some of the architectural historical layering of the cityscape. The adaptive reuse of the buildings demonstrated in this image would no doubt have been approved of by George Coates, whose specialty was in doing precisely this kind of work with buildings considered “old” and better adapted for commercial purposes in his own day.

Still not convinced St. George’s Terrace is worth saving? Then take a look at this slideshow of “before and after” photos of recent restoration works on a number of Parramatta Park’s gatehouses. In the case of the May’s Hill Gatehouse, the structure was almost entirely falling over in parts, yet stands today, pretty as a picture, fully restored with a modern addition. St. George’s Terrace is by no means beyond the point of no return.

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SIGN AND SHARE THE PETITION TO SAVE WILLOW GROVE AND ST. GEORGE’S TERRACE FROM DEMOLITION: 

https://saveaustraliasheritage.good.do/dontdestroyourheritage/


George Coates is buried alongside his wife Mary Coates (née Larmer) at Australia’s oldest surviving European cemetery, St. John’s Cemetery, O’Connell and Aird Street, Parramatta. Also buried there are George’s brothers, John and Herbert, who made the journey to the colony of New South Wales after George and his young family set sail.


NOTES

Very special thanks to Marion Moran and Alec Brennan, Coates family history researchers, who were incredibly helpful in confirming details and generous with their Coates family research and photographs, allowing this essay to be speedily composed for the purposes of the campaign to Save Willow Grove and St. George’s Terrace.

[1] “A Master Builder. Mr. George Coates, Senr. One of Our Civic “Old Brigade.” The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW: 1888 – 1950), Saturday 28 April 1906, p. 11 . £2 in c.1850 is the equivalent of £160.37 or $286.00 AUD, in today’s currency. See The National Archives Currency Converter: 1270–2017, http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/currency-converter/ (2017), accessed online 1 July 2018. Information about the amount of money in George Coates’s pocket on arrival may have been information passed on orally through the Coates family rather than through printed sources. George Coates himself related in 1906 that he had landed with two pounds in his coat pocket.

[2] “IMMIGRANTS PER “FORTUNE.” New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW: 1832 – 1900), Saturday 30 April 1853, [Issue No.47 (SUPPLEMENT)], p. 756  Another newspaper article states the total number as 312. See “SHIPPING INTELLIGENCE. ARRIVALS,” Empire (Sydney, NSW: 1850 – 1875), Friday 29 April 1853, p. 2.

[3] NSW State Archives & Records, https://www.records.nsw.gov.au/archives/collections-and-research/guides-and-indexes/assisted-immigrants-index ; Ancestry, “About New South Wales, Australia, Assisted immigrant Passenger Lists, 1828–1896,” https://search.ancestry.com.au/search/db.aspx?dbid=1204 accessed 1 July 2018.

[4]A Master Builder. Mr. George Coates, Senr. One of Our Civic “Old Brigade.” The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW: 1888 – 1950), Saturday 28 April 1906, p. 11.

[5] For primary sources confirming George Coates’s occupation in the British army and later as a policeman, see England’s 1841 Census, 1851 Census, and 1861 Census.

[6] Regarding George and James’s employment in the cotton factory, see the 1841 census.

[7] Marion Moran, Coates family history researcher, unpublished research notes.

[8]A Master Builder. Mr. George Coates, Senr. One of Our Civic “Old Brigade.” The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW: 1888 – 1950), Saturday 28 April 1906, p. 11.

[9]A Master Builder. Mr. George Coates, Senr. One of Our Civic “Old Brigade.” The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW: 1888 – 1950), Saturday 28 April 1906, p. 11.

[10]IMMIGRANTS PER “FORTUNE.” New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW: 1832 – 1900), Saturday 30 April 1853, [Issue No.47 (SUPPLEMENT)], p. 756  Another newspaper article states the total number as 312.

[11] “A Master Builder. Mr. George Coates, Senr. One of Our Civic “Old Brigade.” The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW: 1888 – 1950), Saturday 28 April 1906, p. 11.

[12]A Master Builder. Mr. George Coates, Senr. One of Our Civic “Old Brigade.” The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW: 1888 – 1950), Saturday 28 April 1906, p. 11.

[13]A Master Builder. Mr. George Coates, Senr. One of Our Civic “Old Brigade.” The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW: 1888 – 1950), Saturday 28 April 1906, p. 11.

[14]A Master Builder. Mr. George Coates, Senr. One of Our Civic “Old Brigade.” The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW: 1888 – 1950), Saturday 28 April 1906, p. 11.

[15] “Family Notices,” The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 – 1954), Tuesday 4 January 1859, p.8.

[16]A Master Builder. Mr. George Coates, Senr. One of Our Civic “Old Brigade.” The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW: 1888 – 1950), Saturday 28 April 1906, p. 11;  “Death of ex-Alderman Geo. Coates,” The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW: 1888 – 1950), Saturday 6 April 1912, p. 6.

[17] Marion Moran, Coates family history researcher, unpublished research notes.

[18]Death of ex-Alderman Geo. Coates,” The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW: 1888 – 1950), Saturday 6 April 1912, p. 6.

[19]Death of ex-Alderman Geo. Coates,” The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW: 1888 – 1950), Saturday 6 April 1912, p. 6. Information regarding the effect of economic depression on the Coates’s business courtesy of Marion Moran, Coates family history researcher, unpublished research notes.

[20]LOCAL AND GENERAL,” The Cumberland Mercury (Parramatta, NSW: 1875 – 1895), Wednesday 2 March 1887, p. 2.

[21] Marion Moran, Coates family history researcher, unpublished research notes.

[22]A Master Builder. Mr. George Coates, Senr. One of Our Civic “Old Brigade.” The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW: 1888 – 1950), Saturday 28 April 1906, p. 11.

[23] Marion Moran, Coates family history researcher. Unpublished research notes on the Coates family.

[24]A Master Builder. Mr. George Coates, Senr. One of Our Civic “Old Brigade.” The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW: 1888 – 1950), Saturday 28 April 1906, p. 11.

[25] Australian Army, “Sudan 1885,” https://www.army.gov.au/our-work/publications/campaign-series/sudan-1885 accessed online 2 July 2018.

[26] “A Master Builder. Mr. George Coates, Senr. One of Our Civic “Old Brigade.” The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW: 1888 – 1950), Saturday 28 April 1906, p. 11.

[27] “A Master Builder. Mr. George Coates, Senr. One of Our Civic “Old Brigade.” The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW: 1888 – 1950), Saturday 28 April 1906, p. 11.

[28]A Master Builder. Mr. George Coates, Senr. One of Our Civic “Old Brigade.” The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW: 1888 – 1950), Saturday 28 April 1906, p. 11. “He lived in Smith-street then, in a cottage nearly opposite Newling and Walker’s cordial factory,” which would have been not far from where he went on to build St. George’s Terrace on the corner of Smith and Phillip Streets. He also resided in “one of the fine houses he had…erected in Taylor-street. In later life, following the death of his wife Mary in 1878 and his second marriage to widow Caroline Merritt, though, George Coates moved into his new cottage, Bellview. When George Coates, jun., advertised that Bellview was available to let in 1912 following his father’s death, the property was described thus: “BELLVIEW, late residence Geo. Coates, Sen., Esq., centrally situated in George-st., Parramatta, 7 large rooms and kitchen, laundry, bath, plate-room, etc., fruit trees, bush-house, poultry yards, commodious outhouses. Every modern convenience. In first-class order. Available end of April.” “Advertising,” The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW: 1888 – 1950), Saturday 20 April 1912, p. 7. For further evidence of his residence in Smith Street, Parramatta “Family Notices,” The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 – 1954), Tuesday 4 January 1859, p.8; “Death of ex-Alderman Geo. Coates,” The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW: 1888 – 1950), Saturday 6 April 1912, p. 6.

[29] Marion Moran, Coates family history researcher. Unpublished research notes on the Coates family.

[30] Marion Moran, Coates family history researcher. Unpublished research notes on the Coates family.

[31]Death of ex-Alderman Geo. Coates,” The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW: 1888 – 1950), Saturday 6 April 1912, p. 6.

[32] Marion Moran, Coates family history researcher, unpublished research notes.

[33] Regarding George Coates being both the builder and owner of St. George’s Terrace, see New South Wales Government, “Parramatta Archaeological Management Unit 2882: St George’s Terraces, Oriental Hotel, 42–56 Phillip Street, Parramatta,” State Heritage Register, (New South Wales: Office of Environment and Heritage, 2000), http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/heritageapp/ViewHeritageItemDetails.aspx?ID=2242882, accessed 2 July 2018.

[34] New South Wales Government, “Parramatta Archaeological Management Unit 2882: St George’s Terraces, Oriental Hotel, 42–56 Phillip Street, Parramatta,” State Heritage Register, (New South Wales: Office of Environment and Heritage, 2000), http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/heritageapp/ViewHeritageItemDetails.aspx?ID=2242882, accessed 2 July 2018.

[35]LOCAL OPTION FIRST FRUITS,” The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW: 1888 – 1950), Saturday 1 August 1908, p. 4.

[36] For example, Thomas Castles, bricklayer, occupied one of the terrace houses in 1894. See “IN BANKRUPTCY,New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW: 1832 – 1900), Friday 13 April 1894, [Issue No. 228], p. 2428.

[37]Death of ex-Alderman Geo. Coates,” The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW: 1888 – 1950), Saturday 6 April 1912, p. 6; “Family Notices: DEATHS,” The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 – 1954), Thursday 4 April 1912, p. 10; “Family Notices: FUNERALS,” The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 – 1923), Thursday 4 April 1912, p. 3.

[38]Killed at Gallipoli. Another Parramatta Boy,” The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW: 1888 – 1950), Wednesday 24 May 1916, p. 3.

[39]OUR HEROES. A Patriotic Demonstration. The Mayoress Unveils Parramatta’s Roll of Honor,” The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW: 1888 – 1950), Wednesday 3 November 1915, p. 2.

[40] “Killed at Gallipoli. Another Parramatta Boy,” The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW: 1888 – 1950), Wednesday 24 May 1916, p. 3 ; Commonwealth War Graves Commission, Commonwealth War Graves Registers, London, United Kingdom: Peter Singlehurst.

[41]THE ROYAL GATES OPENED. Visit of the Governor-General to Parramatta,” The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW: 1888 – 1950), Saturday 30 March 1918, p. 10.

[42]A Master Builder. Mr. George Coates, Senr. One of Our Civic “Old Brigade.” The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW: 1888 – 1950), Saturday 28 April 1906, p. 11.

[43]A Master Builder. Mr. George Coates, Senr. One of Our Civic “Old Brigade.” The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW: 1888 – 1950), Saturday 28 April 1906, p. 11.

[44]A Master Builder. Mr. George Coates, Senr. One of Our Civic “Old Brigade.” The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW: 1888 – 1950), Saturday 28 April 1906, p. 11.

[45] Elizabeth Farrelly, “Pity Parramatta, victim of an elitist land grab,” Sydney Morning Herald (15 June 2018), https://www.smh.com.au/politics/nsw/pity-parramatta-victim-of-an-elitist-land-grab-20180615-p4zllv.html, accessed 1 July 2018.

[46] Elizabeth Farrelly, “Pity Parramatta, victim of an elitist land grab,” Sydney Morning Herald (15 June 2018), https://www.smh.com.au/politics/nsw/pity-parramatta-victim-of-an-elitist-land-grab-20180615-p4zllv.html, accessed 1 July 2018.

[47]A Master Builder. Mr. George Coates, Senr. One of Our Civic “Old Brigade.” The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW: 1888 – 1950), Saturday 28 April 1906, p. 11.